CARI Publications


Since its inception in 1999, research at the CARI facilities has directly resulted in the completion of 14 Ph.D. dissertations, seven books, and scores of articles and book chapters.

The scholarly output is primed to continue well into the future: several graduate students from a variety of institutions are currently carrying out dissertation research at the CARI facility in Puno.



Dissertations (by date)

Kennedy, S.A.

2021  Marginalized Labor in Colonial Silver Refining: Reconstructing Power and Identity in Colonial Peru (1600-1800 AD). Ph.D. dissertation, Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh. 

Langlie, B. S.

2016 Farming through the Auca Runa: Agricultural Strategies and Terraces during the Late Intermediate Period, Altiplano, Peru. Ph.D. dissertation, Anthropology, University of Washington, St. Louis.

LaFavre, K.

2016 Macro-scale Political History of the Lake Titicaca Region, Peru and Bolivia: A Synthesis and Analysis of Archaeological Settlement Patterns. Ph.D. dissertation, Anthropology, UCLA. 

Haas, W.R.

2014 Forager Mobility, Constructed Environments, and Emergent Settlement Hierarchy: Insights from Altiplano Archaeology. PhD dissertation, Anthropology, University of Arizona.

Moya, C.

2012 The Evolution of Cognitive Mechanisms for Ethnic Reasoning: Tests from the Quechua-Aymara Linguistic Boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. Ph.D. dissertation, Anthropology, UCLA.

Warwick, M.

2012 In the Shadow of the Peñon: A Zooarchaeological Study of Formative Diet, Economy, and Sociopolitics in the Río Pukara Valley, Peru. Ph.D. dissertation, Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Levine, A.

2012 Competition, Cooperation, and the Emergence of Regional Centers in the Northern Lake Titicaca Basin, Peru. Ph.D. dissertation, Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Cohen, A. B.

2009 Ritual and Architecture in the Titicaca Basin: the Development of the Sunken Court Complex in the Formative Period. Ph.D. dissertation, Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Schultze, C.

2008 The Role of Silver Ore Reduction in Tiwanaku State Expansion into Puno Bay, Peru. Ph.D. dissertation, Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Plourde, A

2006 Prestige Goods and their Role in the Evolution of Social Ranking: A Costly Signaling Model with Data from the Formative Period of the Northern Lake Titicaca Basin, Peru. PhD dissertation for the Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Arkush, E.

2005. Colla Fortified Sites: Warfare and Regional Power in the Late Prehispanic Titicaca Basin, Peru. Ph.D. dissertation, Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Craig, N.

2005 The Formation of Early Settled Villages and the Emergence of Leadership: A Test of Three Theoretical Models in the Rio Ilave, Lake Titicaca Basin, Southern Peru. PhD dissertation for the Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California.

Klarich, E.

2005 From the Monumental to the Mundane: Defining Early Leadership Strategies at Late Formative Pukara, Peru. PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California at Santa Barbara.

Herhahn, C.

2004 Moving to Live: A Pastoral Mobility Model from the South-Central Andes, Peru. PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California at Santa Barbara.

Books (by date)

Arkush, E.

2022 War, Spectacle, and Politics in the Ancient Andes. Cambridge University Press. 

Stanish, C., C. Chávez J., K. LaFavre, and A. Plourde.

2014 The Northern Titicaca Basin Survey: Huancané-Putina. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology.

Tantalean, H. and Flores, L. (editors)

2013 La Arqueologia de la Cuenca del Titicaca, Peru. IFEA, Lima.

Vranich, A., E. Klarich, and C. Stanish (editors)

2013 Advances in Titicaca Basin Archaeology – III. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

Arkush, E.

2011 Hillforts of the Ancient Andes: Colla Warfare, Society, and Landscape. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Stanish, C.

2011 Lake Titicaca. Legend, Myth and Science. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, Los Angeles.

Klarich, E.

2010 Inside Ancient Kitchens: New Directions in the Study of Daily Meals and Feasting Events. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.

Stanish, Charles, Amanda B. Cohen, and Mark S. Aldenderfer, editors

2005 Advances in the Archaeology of the Titicaca Basin-I. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, Los Angeles.

Stanish, C.

2003 Ancient Titicaca: The Evolution of Complex Society in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Recent Articles and Book Chapters (by date)

Joseph, Sophie K., Elizabeth Wagman, Nabeel Diab, Nicholas Ryu, Minwoo Lee, Randall Haas, James K. Rilling, Mark S. Aldenderfer, John Lindo
2024 Paleogenomic insights into cooperation in the ancient Andes from positive selection on oxytocin pathway genes. Genes, Brain and Behavior 23(1):e12877. doi: doi:10.1111/gbb.12877.

Snyder, Thomas J and Randall Haas
2024 Unstructured satellite survey detects up to 20% of archaeological sites in coastal valleys of southern Peru. PLoS ONE 19(2): e0292272.

Chen JC, Aldenderfer MS, Eerkens JW, Langlie BS, Viviano Llave C, Watson JT, Haas R
2024 Stable isotope chemistry reveals plant-dominant diet among early foragers on the Andean Altiplano, 9.0–6.5 cal. ka. PLoS ONE 19(1): e0296420. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0296420.

Kennedy, Sarah A.
2023 “Architecture and Authority: An Analysis of Power and Control at Three Spanish Colonial Silver Refineries (Puno, Peru).” Ñawpa Pacha: Journal of the Institute of Andean Studies. DOI:

Haas, Randall
2023 Early Settlement in the High Andes. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Anthropology. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190854584.013.444.

Flores-Blanco, Luis, Lucero Cuellar, Mark S. Aldenderfer, Charles Stanish, and Randall Haas
2023 Did archery technology precipitate complexity in the Titicaca Basin? A metric analysis of projectile points, 11–1 ka. Quaternary International in press. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2023.10.012.

Smallwood, Ashley, Randall Haas, and Thomas Jennings
2023 Lithic usewear confirms the function of Wilamaya Patjxa projectile points. Scientific Reports 13:19044. doi:10.1038/s41598-023-45743-7.

Snyder, Thomas J. and Randall Haas
2023 Climate change intensified violence in the south-central Andean highlands from 1.5 to 0.5 ka. Quaternary Research. doi:10.1017/qua.2023.23

Velasco, M. C.
2022 Burying the Dead at Ayawiri: Mortuary Diversity and Postmortem Manipulation at an Andean Hillfort (AD 1100–1450). Latin American Antiquity 1-19.

Arnold, T. E., A. L. Hillman, S. J. McGrath, M. B. Abbott, J. P. Werne, J. Hutchings, and E. N. Arkush
2021 Fecal stanol ratios indicate shifts in camelid pastoralism in the highlands of Peru across a 4,000-year lacustrine sequence. Quaternary Science Reviews 270: 107193.

Arnold, T. E., A. L. Hillman, M. W. Abbott, J. P. Werne, S. J. McGrath, and E. N. Arkush
2021. Drought and the collapse of the Tiwanaku civilization: New evidence from Lake Orurillo, Peru. Quaternary Science Reviews 251:106693

Chen, Caleb, Luis Flores-Blanco and Randall Haas
2021 Why did projectile-point size increase in the Andean Altiplano Archaic? An experimental atlatl analysis. Latin American Antiquity. doi:10.1017/laq.2021.70.

Haas, Randall
2021 Sedentary Sites. In South American Contributions to World Archaeology, edited by M. Bonomo and S. Archila, pp. 63-80. Springer International Publishing, Cham. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-73998-0_3.

Kennedy, Sarah A. and S.J. Kelloway
2021  “Application of Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (pXRF) for Identification and Assessment of Heavy Metals in Archaeological Soils.” Advances in Archaeological Practice 9(2):145-159. DOI:

Kennedy, S.A., Kelloway, S.J., and A.J. Kennedy
2021   “Archaeology in the Post-COVID-19 Era: Implementing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) at Archaeological Sites.” The SAA  Archaeological Record 21(3):13-18.

Kitchel, Nathaniel, Mark S. Aldenderfer and Randall Haas
2021 Diet, mobility, technology, and lithics: Neolithization on the Andean Altiplano, 7.0-3.5 ka. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory. doi: 10.1007/s10816-021-09525-7.

Crane, Adam, James T. Watson, and Randall Haas
2020 The effects of aberrant tooth wear on occlusal relationships. In: C Schmidt, JT Watson (eds.), Dental Wear in Evolutionary and Biocultural Contexts, pp. 99-121. Elsevier Press, London. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-815599-8.00005-8.

Haas, Randall, James Watson, Tammy Buonasera, John Southon, Jennifer C. Chen, Sarah Noe, Kevin Smith, Carlos Viviano Llave, Jelmer Eerkens and Glendon Parker
2020 Female hunters of the early Americas. Science Advances 6(45):eabd0310. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abd0310.

Kennedy, S.A. and S.J. Kelloway
2020  “Identifying Metallurgical Practices at a Colonial Silver Refinery in Puno, Peru, Using Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (pXRF).” Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 33. Published online before print. DOI:

Langlie, B.S.
2020 Late Intermediate Period Plant Use at a Colla Hillfort, Puno, Peru (C.E. 1300-1450). Latin American Antiquity 31(4)51-63. 

Arkush, E. and H. Ikehara
2019 Pucarani: Defensive monumentality and political leadership in the late pre-Columbian Andes. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 53:66-81.

Haas, Randall and Steven L. Kuhn
2019 Forager mobility in constructed environments. Current Anthropology 60(4):499–535. doi: 10.1086/704710.

Langlie, B.S.
2019 Morphological Analysis of Late Pre-Hispanic Peruvian Chenopodium spp.. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 28-51-63. 

Arkush, E.
2018 Coalescence and Defensive Communities: Insights from an Andean Hillfort Town. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 28(1):1-22.

Langlie, B.S.
2018 Building Ecological Resistance: Late Intermediate Period Farming in the South-Central Highland Andes. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 52:167-179 

Lindo, John, Randall Haas, Courtney Hofman, Mario Apata, Mauricio Moraga, Ricardo Verdugo, James T Watson, Carlos Llave, David Witonsky, Enrique Pacheco, Mercedes Villena, Rudy Soria, Cynthia Beall, Christina Warinner, John Novembre, Mark Aldenderfer, Anna Di Rienzo
2018 The genetic prehistory of the Andean highlands 7,000 Years BP though European contact. Science Advances 11(4): eaau4921. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau4921.

Arkush, Elizabeth|
2017 The End of Ayawiri: Abandonment at an Andean Hillfort Town.  Journal of Field Archaeology 83:1-17.

Haas, Randall, Ioana C. Stefanescu, Alexander Garcia-Putnam, Mark S. Aldenderfer, Mark T. Clementz, Melissa S. Murphy, Carlos Viviano Llave, and James T. Watson
2017  Humans permanently occupied the Andean highlands by at least 7 ka. Royal Society Open Science 4(6): 170331. doi: 10.1098/rsos.170331.

Watson, James T., and Randall Haas
2017  Dental evidence for wild tuber processing among Titicaca Basin foragers 7000 ybp. American Journal of Physical Anthropology164(1): 117–130. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.23261

Langlie, B. and E. Arkush
2016 Managing mayhem: Conflict, environment, and subsistence in the Andean Late Intermediate Period, Puno, Peru.  In The Archaeology of Food and Warfare, edited by A. VanDerwarker and G. Wilson: 259-290.  Springer.

Moya, C. and R. Boyd
2016 The evolution and development of ethnic reasoning about ethnic markers: Comparisons between urban US and rural highland Peru. Current Anthropology 57:S13, S131-S144

Schultze, C.A., J.A. Huff, T. Rehren, and A.R. Levine
2016. The Emergence of Complex Silver Metallurgy in the Americas: A Case Study from the Lake Titicaca Basin of Southern Peru. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 26(1): 53–64.

Smith, B.
2016 More Landscape, Less Language: Digital Gaming, Moral Panic, and the Linguistic Landscapes of Southern Peru. Signs and Society 4(2) (September 1): 155–175.

2016a Turning language socialization ontological: Material things and the semiotics of scaling time in Peruvian Aymara boyhood. Language and Communication 46: 42–50.

Haas, Randall, Cynthia J. Klink, Greg J. Maggard, and Mark S. Aldenderfer
2015 Settlement-size scaling among prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement systems in the New World. PLoS ONE 10(11):e0140127. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140127.

Haas, Randall, and Carlos Viviano Llave
2015 Hunter-gatherers on the eve of agriculture: Insights from Soro Mik’aya Patjxa, Lake Titicaca Basin, Peru, 8000-6700 B.P. Antiquity 89(348):1297-1312. doi: 10.15184/aqy.2015.100.

Moya, C., Boyd, R. and Henrich, J.
2015. Reasoning about cultural and genetic transmission: Developmental and cross-cultural evidence from Peru, Fiji and the US. Topics in Cognitive Science. 7(4):595-610.

Moya, C. and Boyd, R.
2015. Different selection pressures give rise to distinct ethnic phenomena: A functionalist framework with illustrations from the Peruvian Altiplano. Human Nature. 26(1)

Arkush, E.
2014 Soldados históricos en un panel de arte rupestre, Puno, Perú: Los caudillos del siglo XIX y el comentario político andino. Chungará 46(4):585-605.

Levine, A., C. Stanish, P. Ryan Williams, C. Chávez, and M. Golitko
2013 Trade and early state formation in the northern Titicaca Basin, Peru. Latin American Antiquity 24(3): 289–308.

Bongers, J. L., E. Arkush, and M. Harrower
2012 Landscapes of Death: GIS-based Analyses of Chullpas in the Western Lake Titicaca Basin. Journal of Archaeological Science 39(6):1687-1693.

Haas, Randall, and Jacopo Tagliabue
2012 Prediciendo la coalescencia en los períodos Formativo y Tiwanaku en la Cuenca de Titicaca: un modelo simple basado en agentes (Predicting Formative and Tiwanaku period coalescence in the Titicaca Basin: a simple agent-based model). In Arqueología de la cuenca del Titicaca, Perú, edited by Luis Flores Blanco and Henry Tantaleán, 243–260. Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos; Cotsen Istitute of Archaeology at UCLA, Lima.

Craig, N., M.S. Aldenderfer, C.A. Rigsby, P.A. Baker, and L. Flores
2011. Geologic constraints on rain-fed Qocha reservoir agricultural infrastructure, northern lake Titicaca Basin, Peru. Journal of Archaeological Science 38(11): 2897–2907.

Stanish, C. and A. Levine
2011 War and Early State Formation in the Northern Titicaca Basin, Peru. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(34): 13901-13906.

Levine, A. R.
2011 A Case for Local Ceramic Production in the Jequetepeque Valley during the Late Horizon. In Advances in North Coast Archaeology: State and Empire in the Jequetepeque Valley, edited by Colleen M. Zori and Ilana Johnson, pp. 167-175. British Archaeological Reports (BAR) International Series, Oxford.

Craig, N., Speakman, R.J., Popelka-Filcoff, R., Aldenderfer, M., Blanco, L.F., Vega, M.B., Glascock, M.D., Stanish, C.
2010 Macusani obsidian from southern Peru: a characterization of its elemental composition with a demonstration of its ancient use. Journal of Archaeological Science 37(3):569-576

Craig, Nathan, Mark Aldenderfer, Paul A. Baker and Catherine Rigsby
2010 Terminal Archaic Settlement Pattern and Land Cover Change in the Rio Ilave, Southwestern Lake Titicaca Basin, Perú. In The Archaeology of Anthropogenic Environments, edited by Rebecca M. Dean. Occasional Papers of the Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. No 37, Chapter 3, pp. 35-53.

Klarich, E. and L.Flores Blanco
2010 Continuidad e Innovacion de la Ceramica Pucara: 3000 Años de Produccion Alfarera en la Cunca Norte del Titicaca. In Toro, torito de Pucara: Galeria y estudios, edited by J. Ruiz Durand. MINCETUR, Peruvian Ministry of Tourism.

Plourde, A.M.
2010 Human Power and Prestige Systems. In Mind the Gap: Tracing the Origins of Human Universals, P. Kappeler and J. Silk (eds.), Springer Verlag.

Stanish, C., E. de la Vega, M. Moseley, R. Williams, B. Vining, K. LaFavre
2010 Tiwanaku trade patterns in Southern Peru. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology.

Brown Vega, Margaret and Nathan Craig
2009 New experimental data on the distance of sling projectiles. Journal of Archaeological Science. 36(6):1264-1268.

Schultze, C.A., C. Stanish, D. Scott, T. Rehren, S. Kuehner, and J. Feathers
2009 Direct evidence of 1,900 years of indigenous silver production in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Southern Peru. PNAS 106(41) 17280-17283.

Aldenderfer, M.
2008 High Elevation Foraging Societies. In The Handbook of South American Archaeology, edited by Helaine Silverman and William H. Isbell, 131–143. Springer, New York.

Aldenderfer, M., N. Craig, R. Speakman, and R. Popelka-Filcoff
2008 Four-thousand-year-old Gold Artifacts from the Lake Titicaca Basin, Southern Peru. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.105(13):5002-5005.

Plourde, A.M.
2008 A costly signaling model of the origins of prestige goods, and their subsequent role in the emergence of formalized leadership roles and social ranking. Human Nature 19(4): 374-388.

Craig, Nathan, Robert Speakman, Rachel S. Popelka-Filcoff, Michael D. Glascock, David J. Robertson, Steven Shackley, and Mark Aldenderfer

2007 Comparison of XRF and PXRF for Analysis of Archaeological Obsidian from Southern Peru. Journal of Archaeological Science 34(12):2012-2024.

Griffin, Art and Charles Stanish
2007 An agent-based model of prehistoric settlement patterns and political consolidation in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Peru and Bolivia. Structure and Dynamics: eJournal of Anthropological and Related Sciences 2(2), article 2.

Popelka-Filcoff, R. S., Nathan Craig, Michael D. Glascock, David J. Robertson, Mark. Aldenderfer and Robert J. Speakman
2007 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of Ochre Artifacts from Jiskairumoko, Perú. In Archaeological Chemistry: Analytical Techniques and Archaeological Interpretation, edited by M. D. Glascock, R. J. Speakman and R. S. Popelka- Filcoff. American Chemical Society Symposium Series vol. 968. 480-404 American Chemical Society, Washington D.C.

Stanish, Charles
2007 Agricultural intensification in the Titicaca Basin. In Seeking a Richer Harvest, Edited by Tina Thurston and Christopher Fisher, pp. 125-139. Springer, New York.

Stanish, Charles and Brian Bauer
2007 Pilgrimage and the geography of power in the Inka Empire. In Variations in the Expression of Inka Power, edited by R. Burger, C. Morris, and R Matos M., pp. 45-83. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington.

Stanish, Charles, Edmundo de la Vega, and Cecilia Chávez
2007 Tiwanaku y el Noroeste Argentina: una visión desde la Cuenca del Titicaca. In Sociedades Precolombinas Surandinas. Edited by Verónica I. Williams, Beatriz N. Ventura, Adriana B. M. Callegari and Hugo D. Yacobaccio, pp. 147-153. Taller Internacional de Arqueología del NOA y Andes Centro Sur. Buenos Aires.